did John Snow prove that contaminated drinking water causes cholera?

Please REPLY to discussion 1 & 2 notes below.
Discussion 1-
Physician John Snow targeted an origin of cholera outbreak in Soho in 1854. He collected data through the neighborhood by investigating who was dying and what water they had possibly ingested from the different water supplies in the area. He learned that most people who fell ill had drunk from a particular water supply from his investigation. He used all the data he collected and made a map of the area, which showed that this specific water supply was within walking distance of those affected. These are just some strategies that John Snow used in his investigation.
Causal relationship is proven by evaluating conclusions with evidence (Nies & McEwen, 2019). Data that must be collected to support causal relationships are the strength of association, dose-response relationship, temporally-correct relationship, biological plausibility, consistency, and specificity (Nies & McEwen, 2019). The strength of association is that the rates of illness and death are higher in those exposed than the non-exposed (Nies & McEwen, 2019). A dose-response relationship is an increased exposure to the risk factor that causes increased complications (Nies & McEwen, 2019). A temporally-correct relationship is an exposure to the factor before the disease’s effect (Nies & McEwen, 2019). Biological plausibility is that the statistics must make biological sense and provide an explanation for the effects (Nies & McEwen, 2019). Consistency means that there is a correlation in other studies (Nies & McEwen, 2019). Specificity is the data must be appropriate to support the cause of the disease (Nies & McEwen, 2019). These are examples of data that is needed to support the causal relationships.
John Snow was very in-depth in his research in Soho in 1854. I think he proved that contaminated drinking water causes cholera. He investigated who was dying and the strength of association. He investigated the dose-response relationship by identifying those who had increased exposure and increased complications. He identified the temporally-correct relationship by ensuring that the people he studied had symptoms after they were exposed to the contaminated drinking water. He proved biological plausibility by identifying the contaminated drinking water. He confirmed why the alcohol brewery wasn’t affected as much since they drank alcohol and why another factory wasn’t affected as much in the area because they had their own source of drinking water.
Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2019). Community/public health nursing: Promoting the health of populations (7th ed.). Elsevier.
Discussion 2-
Watch the video clip: Mike Jay on John Snow and the Soho Cholera Outbreak of 1854 – The Broad Street Pump Handle and the Birth of Epidemiology at John Snow and the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.   Based on the findings from the video, please answer the following prompts. 
 
1. Identify strategies utilized in the outbreak investigation. 
John Snow used a disease mapping strategy by mapping the cholera cases across London and where they received their drinking water from. By using this map  he was able to successfully identify the source of the infected water as the Broadstreet pump due to this is the water pump that the people who were infected with Cholera drank their water from. (Harvard X 2017).
2. How is a causal relationship proven? 
You have to formulate a hypothesis and prove this by collecting data and identifying causal relationships. The cause (independent variable) must precede the effect (dependent variable) in time. The two variables are empirically correlated with one another. The observed empirical correlation between the two variables cannot be due to the influence of a third variable that causes the two under consideration. (Harvard X 2017).
 What data must be collected to support causal relationships? 
You have to collect data that proves that the dependent variable was caused by the independent variable and that there is not a third variable that could have caused this to happen.
3. Based on your interpretation of causal relationship, did John Snow prove that contaminated drinking water causes cholera? Provide the rationale for your response. 
John Snow did prove causal relationship by providing data that showed that cholera was caused by the bacteria in the contaminated water pump called Broad Street water pump. His data showed that the people who died from cholera drank their water from this particular pump. After proving this and finally removing the handle from this pump, no one else  died of cholera after this. (Harvard X 2017).
Reference
Harvard X (2017). John Snow and the Cholera Outbreak of 1854. Harvard X John Snow and the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak – YouTube

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