What is the difference between heterosexism and homophobia?

Complete the required discussion prompt:
Heteronormative is the idea that binary gender identity and heterosexual orientation (meaning, there are only two sexual orientations and genders) are the norm. Gender identity is where you see yourself on the continuum of gender (if you identify with the sex you were born with at birth, you are considered cisgender). Meanwhile, sexual orientation is who you are attracted to, and can range from being straight/heterosexual to being gay or anything on the spectrum between.
Certainly, there are a lot of labels. For many people, they’re a way of identifying themselves and discovering their identities; others, on the other hand, choose to avoid labels altogether. But no matter which camp you fall into, there are many reasons why heteronormativity is an idea that should be rejected.
If you’re not heteronormative, you’re forced to explain yourself, while cisgender and heterosexual people don’t have to.
When your identity does not cohere with heteronormativity, you are often asked to explain yourself — why you don’t have a boyfriend/girlfriend, how sex for you “works,” and other insensitive, inappropriate questions.
Assuming that people only identify as either male or female is incorrect
In our world, we commonly think of gender as just male and female, especially when we’re categorized by things like color and clothing. It seems like we can’t even look at anything without seeing it divided into boys and girls — this is heteronormativity. But the thing is, not everyone identifies as one or the other or expresses themselves that way. Even if someone “looks” like a guy (also evidence of heteronormativity), they may prefer to use the pronouns “she/her” — and we need to respect that by not misgendering people. Some people identify as genderfluid, which means that your identity (like male or female), can move from one side of the spectrum to the other, and some people are genderless or identify with neither of the genders that are imposed on people. The most important thing to remember is that everyone’s gender can be unique and everyone’s gender identity, gender orientation, and gender expression are important to respect.
Further, “female” and “male” even as solely biological designations still exclude some people, who are often classified as “intersex.” Intersex means that one’s anatomy or genetics does not line up with typical expectations for either male or female people. Heteronormativity would have society believe that to be intersex is to not be normal — which is simply untrue. For intersex people, doctors and parents have often decided their gender at birth and genital reconstructive surgery is performed to turn what is seen as atypical genitalia into something that is recognizably either male or female. Intersex identity also has its own spectrum, which means that the anatomy of an intersex person can be entirely different from another intersex person.
Assuming all people are straight is incorrect.
Plain and simple, not everyone is straight. And not everyone is gay or straight. Less than 50% of the teen population currently identifies as straight, but even if the majority of people identified as straight, it’s wrong to assume someone falls into the majority. This is the erasure of all other identities that do not fall under heteronormativity. To make sure everyone feels respected and represented, never assume anything about someone’s identity unless they tell you themselves.
Heteronormativity leads to serious consequences for those who aren’t heteronormative.
The National Coalition for the Homeless reports that while 10% of the youth population in the U.S. are LGBTQ (and this is only the reported figure), 20% of homeless youth in the U.S. are LGBTQ. And the Trevor Project puts that figure at 40%.
And it’s not just in homeless shelters and on the street where LGBTQ youth face harassment and safety issues. Even if families are supportive of LGBTQ identities, the statistics on school bullying against LGBTQ people are alarming. The Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network (GLSEN) in the year 2010 study showed that while appearance was the top reason for bullying, “the second most common reason was actual or assumed sexual orientation and gender identity.” Its figures indicated that 82% of LGBTQ youth had been bullied over their actual or assumed sexual orientation in the past year alone. Sixty-four percent of respondents felt unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation, while 44% felt unsafe at school because of their gender identity.
Unfortunately, statistics on violence against LGBTQ people, especially those who are transgender, are equally as troubling. In the U.S. alone, transgender homicides hit an all-time high in consecutive years from 2015 to 2019 — none of which were prosecuted as hate crimes.
Answer the prompts below (be sure to answer all parts of questions)
What is the difference between heterosexism and homophobia?
Can homosexuals change their sexual orientation if they want to or are people born with their orientation? And if so, can heterosexuals do the same?
Why do researchers generally recommend using the term “sexual orientation” rather than “sexual preference”?
Should discrimination based on sexual orientation be outlawed to the same extent as discrimination based on race and sex?
If people believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible, is it still prejudiced for them to do the following:
regard homosexual behavior as sinful?
view homosexuality as an abomination before God?
support the death penalty for homosexual behavior?
Why or why not?
Why do people call homosexuality unnatural, when it exists in all sexual species in nature?
attached is the ted talk vidoe link

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