“How is spite different from other forms of social interaction?”
A 1500 words Essay with the title “How is spite different from other forms of social interaction?” must be written.
You must utilise the following articles as references :
Models and examples of spite :
Hamilton, W.D. 1970. Selfish and spiteful behaviour in an evolutionary model. Nature 228: 1218–1220. Reproduced with an introduction in: Hamilton, W. D. 1995 Narrow Roads to Gene Land. Volume 1. Freeman
Keller, L. & Ross, K.G. 1998. Selfish genes: a green beard in the red fire ant. Nature 394: 573–575.
Wang, J. et al. 2013 A Y-like social chromosome. Nature 493, 664-668.
Gardner, A., West, S.A. & Buckling, A. 2004. Bacteriocins, spite and virulence. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: 1529–1535.
Giron, D., Dunn, D.W., Hardy, I.C.W. & Strand, M.R. 2004. Aggression by polyembryonic wasp soldiers correlates with kinship but not resource competition. Nature 430, 676-679.
Lehmann, L. Bargum, K. and Reuter, M. 2006 An evolutionary analysis of the relationship between spite and altrusm. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 1507-1516.
Gardner A, Hardy ICW, Taylor PD & West SA. 2007 Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 169, 519-533
Please do utilise another 2-4 references to suggest that the research was done beyond the already given articles list.
Also for building background the following three articles were given (THEY DO NOT NEED TO BE USED AS REFERENCES). So you can have a read through them to deepen your understanding of the topic.
Gardner, A. and West, S. A. 2006 Spite. Current Biology 16, R662-R664.
Davies, N. B., Krebs, J. R. and West, S. A. 2012 An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. Chapter 11, Social behavior: altruism to spite
West, S. A., Griffin, A. S. and Gardner, A. 2007 Evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Current Biology 17, R661-672.
I will also upload the articles that need to be used in the References List as PDFs.
Looking forward to hearing from you,