How do plants “fight back” against insect herbivores?

Read NRG_Publication_Forests_of_NYC.pdf Download NRG_Publication_Forests_of_NYC.pdf and answer the following:
1). What biome was represented when vegetation first began to grow where the glacier receded?
2). What mammals were present in our region 10 thousand years ago that are now extinct?
3). What are the four vertical forest layers? Give an example of the types of animals in each layer.
4). What animals are the chief primary consumers in forest ecosystems?
5). How much does the short-tailed shrew eat every day?
6). How do plants “fight back” against insect herbivores?
7). How are neotropical migrant songbirds that visit NYC of global ecological importance?
8). The great-horned owl and red-tailed hawk often occupy the same habitat. How is their niche partitioned so they do not come in direct conflict with one another?

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