Advantages and Disadvantages of IFAS

Project Instructions
Project topic: Integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS)
This project is related to biological wastewater treatment.
The report must have proper in-text citation and references, be 7 pages in length.
The discharge of improperly treated wastewater is the primary cause of quality deterioration in ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, and oceans (Chan et al. 2009). The impact load of discharged wastewaters on these ecosystems in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) is estimated to be in the tens of thousands mg/L (Chan et al. 2009). Municipal wastewater is particularly rich in phosphorous (P) and nitrogen (N); these two elements are primarily linked to eutrophication in rivers and lakes (Oldham and Rabinowitz 2001). The discharge of nitrogen and phosphorous fosters the growth of algae and aquatic plants, thereby depleting the oxygen content of these receiving water bodies and rendering them inhabitable to fish and undesirable for domestic or recreational use (Oldham and Rabinowitz 2001). In order to protect water resources, the regulations controlling the discharge limits of N and P into receiving water bodies are becoming stricter; for instance in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2015 the main municipal wastewater treatment company, EPCOR, was licenced to operate with a discharge limit of 5.0mg/L for NH3-N during the summer months, 10mg/L for NH3-N during the winter months and 1.0 mg/L total Phosphorous all year round (Thomas et al. 2015). Given the increasingly stringent regulations, most secondary treatment plants in the world have recently been converted to biological nutrient removal (BNR) facilities; “BNR” referring to the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous using a biological mechanism
Integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process is considered as one of the leading-edge processes that provides a sustainable solution for wastewater treatment. Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge System (IFAS) is a hybrid system considered as one of the solutions that can enable us to enhance the existing wastewater treatment plants [3]. It combines both the suspended and attached growth in the same reactor. Its concept relies upon adding media to the activated sludge process allowing progressively microbial development. Microorganisms form a biofilm on the media, thus enhancing the performance of the activated sludge system, and increasing the treatment capacity with no need for treatment units. In addition, it is viewed as one of the minor cost answers for increasing the capacity of a plant and upgrading the nature of the treated effluent. IFAS increase activated sludge plant capacity, with practically zero included tankage, as a result of the extra fixed biomass . IFAS offers advantages over the conventional activated sludge process such as reduced footprint, enhanced nutrient removal, complete nitrification, longer solids retention time and better removal of anthropogenic composites.
Studies show that an IFAS system retrofitted into an activated sludge was successfully used to enhance nitrification and denitrification at a shorter hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours and at a lower temperature, while saving millions of dollars from the projected construction cost of building additional reactor tanks which could have occurred if there was no IFAS retrofitting.
IFAS technology has been incorporated into municipal/industrial wastewater facilities for both new construction and upgraded plants in many variations of suspended growth systems. When included in new plant design, reduced tank volumes result. New tanks must be designed to incorporate fixed or dispersed media and additional auxiliary screens should be added if a dispersed IFAS media reactor is chosen (adapted from BRENTWOOD 2009).
Similarly, in retrofit applications, increased treatment capacity may be realised, along with the other benefits of fixed film type processes. The existing aeration capacity needs to be evaluated to determine whether it is adequate for the increased BOD removal and biomass respiration expected with the higher level of treatment performance associated with IFAS. Media installation needs to be planned carefully to ensure that the existing basins can accommodate the fixed media modules or dispersed media systems (adapted from BRENTWOOD 2009).
The contents of the project report should include:
– an abstract
– an introduction
– The IFAS process/ working principle & performance ( include a diagram ): The Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) process combines the advantages of conventional activated sludge with those of biofilm systems by combining the two technologies in a single reactor .Typically, an IFAS configuration will be similar to an activated sludge plant, with biomass carriers (described above) introduced into carefully selected zones within the activated sludge process. This allows two distinct biological populations to act synergistically, with the Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) degrading most of the organic load (BOD), and the biofilm creating a strongly nitrifying population for oxidation of the nitrogenous load (NH4+).
– Basic Design Principles: There are a number of different approaches to IFAS implementation but the various configurations fall into one of two basic types: “dispersed media” entrapped in the aeration basin, and “fixed media”, such as structured sheet media or knitted fabric media, fixed-in-place in the aeration basin .
– IFAS vs. Conventional Activated Sludge
– Cost Comparison of Various IFAS Systems
– Advantages and Disadvantages of IFAS
– future recommendations & conclusion
– references
-Need to do presentation on Integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) . Need 9 presentation slides on power point with speaker notes. Presentation slides should summarize the contents of project.
On the presentation slides, please ensure to properly cite all necessary references (especially for Figures, Tables and all data).

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