How many branches would the legislature have in the Virginia Plan and what would representation be based on?

Learning Goal: I’m working on a history writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.PART ONE: A New Nation. Here Is the reading and link for this part: A New NationPrintAfter independence was declared, Americans faced the challenge of creating a new nation out of thirteen distinct states. The new nation faced enormous debt and was still surrounded by real and potential enemies, and its ability to survive seemed doubtful to many. As colonies became states, they drafted their own constitutions. Some put in place democratic forms of governments, while others built in more restrictive features such as high property qualifications for officeholding. The first national government, created by the Articles of Confederation, reflected the states’ desire to preserve their individual sovereignty and embodied the revolutionary generation’s opposition to a strong centralized government. The Confederation government thus lacked basic powers: it could not raise taxes or regulate commerce. However, it negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783, and it established, through three Northwest Ordinances, the process by which territories became states. But with limited powers, the Confederation could not resolve the nation’s financial problems, deal effectively with foreign nations, or ensure social order within its borders. By the time Massachusetts farmers rose up in revolt in 1786, many of the nation’s elite political figures were calling for a stronger national government.In the summer of 1787, these nationalists met in Philadelphia to consider a new Constitution. The Constitution they produced, after long months of debate, steered a middle ground between a central government that was too powerful and one that was too limited. It established executive, legislative, and judicial branches that could “check and balance” one another and thus, it was hoped, safeguard the nation from tyranny. The new government could both raise taxes and regulate commerce. After intense battles between pro-Constitution forces, known as Federalists, and their Antifederalist opponents, the new Constitution was ratified by the states in 1788. Soon after George Washington took office as the first president, serious differences in political opinion again emerged. Alexander Hamilton’s vision of a vigorous commercial and industrial nation conflicted with Thomas Jefferson’s desire for an agrarian republic. The two resulting factions disagreed over economic and foreign policy. The French Revolution intensified the divisions: while Hamilton argued against American support for the French in their war with England, Jefferson passed the administration to support their fellow revolutionaries. Washington managed to steer a neutral course in this European conflict. By the end of Washington’s second term as president, the United States had expanded its borders, negotiated with Spain for access to the Mississippi River, and under Hamilton’s guidance, established a national bank at the center of an economic system that promoted market-oriented growth. The departing Washington urged Americans to continue to cooperate with the new federal government and cautioned them not to allow competing visions of America’s future to harm the new nation. I. Summarize the textbook section, “The Constitutional Convention,” located in A New Nation.II. Students need to analyze the Primary Source Readings located in the module, “A NewNation.” These primary sources are separate from the textbook reader. Once you finish analyzing the primary source readings please answer the following questions in complete sentences:The delegates who met (in secret) in Philadelphia in May 1787 did not agree on the best way to reform the government. Some delegates, like James Monroe of Virginia, hoped to strengthen the existing government by amending the Articles of Confederation. Others joined with Madison and Hamilton, who argued for a new governmental structure. Once representatives agreed to draft a new constitution, they still disagreed over questions of representation, the powers of state and national governments, and the limits of popular democracy. Significant compromises had to be reached on these issues to frame a new Constitution. Browse through the primary sources below to gain a better understanding of the compromises that came with drafting a new federal government for the United States in 1787.…………… Hamilton was a true American success story: an illegitimate son of a Scottish merchant, he immigrated from the West Indies to the mainland during his teenage years. Hamilton served as Washington’s aide-de-camp, became a leader of the New York bar, and married into New York’s social elite. As the author of many of the “Federalist Papers,” essays, and the first secretary of the treasury, Hamilton helped shape the future of the new nation. In 1791, Alexander Hamilton outlined his vision for the economic future of the United States. When Hamilton predicted that manufacturing would, and should, overtake agriculture as the basis for the American economy, he knew he would be setting himself against some of the most important people in the nation. Hamilton’s Report on Manufactures was not adopted by Congress, but the ideas it set forth would eventually become central to the economy of the United States. Hamilton’s belief that a strong central government with broad economic power could encourage the fledgling manufacturing industries of the new country set the stage for this country to become the economic superpower it is today. 1. According to the Virginia Plan what type of government was needed for the United States? 2. How many branches would the legislature have in the Virginia Plan and what would representation be based on? 3. Did the New Jersey plan want to revise or dispose of the Articles of Confederation? 4. How many branches would the legislature have in the New Jersey Plan and what would representation be based on? 5. Did the three-fifths compromise increase or decrease southern representation in the House of Representatives? 6. Can you infer any effects or impacts this may have? 7. According to the preamble what were the purposes for adopting the Constitution? 8. How many amendments were originally proposed in the Bill of Rights? 9. What was the purpose of the Bill Rights? 10. What do these documents tell you about the time period being studied?III. Describe something you found interesting from the textbook chapter, A New Nation. PART TWO: The Early Republic.7. The Early RepublicJefferson’s inaugural address in 1801 seemed to announce an end to partisan warfare, but both Madison and hard-line Republicans in Congress attempted to restrict Federalist power in the court system. The Republican program, however, was not entirely negative. Jefferson looked toward a future in which most Americans could not own enough land to produce life’s necessities for themselves and were beholden to no one and thus free to vote their consciences. To attain this end, Jefferson ordered massive reductions in the size of government, the elimination of internal federal taxes, and rapid expansion westward, including the purchase of the vast territory called Louisiana. For some, the outcome was a spirit of excitement and optimism, but not everyone was so hopeful. Jefferson clearly wanted most Americans to share in the bounty of an expanded nation, but not all were free to share equally. For American Indians, the very success of Jefferson’s expansion policy meant a contraction in their freedom of action. African Americans also found that the equality Jefferson promised to others was not intended for them, though many grasped for it anyway. As to women, they were encouraged to play an active role in the new nation but were expected to do so only through their roles as wives and mothers. After Jefferson’s eight years in office, factional disputes at home and diplomatic deadlocks with European powers began to plague the Republicans. Although the Federalists were in full retreat, many within Jefferson’s own party rebelled against some of his policies. When Jefferson decided not to run for office in 1808, he declared James Madison as his successor. However, despite Madison’s continuing peace efforts with England and France, southern and western interests in the United States finally pushed the nation into war with England in 1812. Although some glimmering moments of glory heartened the Americans, the war was mostly disastrous. But after generations of fighting one enemy or another, the English people demanded peace. When their final offensive in America failed to bring immediate victory in 1814, the British chose to negotiate. Finally, on Christmas Eve, the two nations signed the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812. From a diplomatic point of view, it was as though the war had never happened. Nevertheless, in the United States, the war created strong feelings of national pride and confidence, and Americans looked forward to even better things to come. In the Northeast, entrepreneurs explored new industries, creating the first stage of an industrial revolution. In the West, the defeat of the Indian resistance combined with bright economic opportunities triggered a wave of westward migration. In the South, the economy was revolutionized by the cotton gin and the growing demand for fiber among English and then American manufacturers. Throughout the country, economic progress promised to improve life for most Americans, but as before, both African Americans and Native Americans bore much of the cost.……I. Summarize ONE of the following topic sections from the textbook chapter, The Early Republic: • Free and Enslaved Black Americans and the Challenge to Slavery • Jeffersonian Republicanism • Native American Power and the United States • The War of 1812 II. Read the following primary sources and answer the questions in complete sentences. The primary sources are located in The Early Republic Reader. Letter of Cato and Petition by “the negroes who obtained freedom by the late act,” in Postscript to the Freeman’s Journal, September 21, 1781 1. Who is the author? 2. Who was the author’s intended audience? 3. What is the author’s intent? 4. What does this document tell you about abolition? Was it guaranteed? Thomas Jefferson’s Racism, 1788 1. Who is the author (in 1788)? 2. The excerpt you are reading is from Jefferson’s only book during his lifetime, Notes on the State of Virginia. Who is the author’s intended audience? 3. What does Jefferson say about African-descended peoples? How does he describe them? 4. What effects or influences do you think this would have had in its own time? Black Scientist Benjamin Banneker demonstrates black intelligence to Thomas Jefferson, 1791 1. Who is the author? 2. Who was the author’s intended audience? 3. What is the author’s intent? 4. What does the author say about slavery and the American Revolution? III. What did you learn about Black rights during the early Republic?
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