evaluating the impact of blockchain technology on sustainable supply chain

Learning Goal: I’m working on a economics discussion question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.Part 1: This is the article that I want to share with you and its abstract:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925527322000226.An analytical approach for evaluating the impact of blockchain technology on sustainable supply chain performanceBackground/problemNowadays, distributed ledger technologies (e.g., blockchain technology) can play significant roles in improving supply chain management and sustainability. Blockchain technology can support responsible sourcing and ensure compliance with environmental standards by boosting traceability and transparency in sustainable supply chains. Nevertheless, blockchain technology has not been widely applied in this field due to the lack of familiarity of managers with its intrinsic characteristics.Objective/aimThis study investigates the performance improvement, arising from the blockchain implementation, to address the problem of managerial conservatism and this technology adoption.Method/designAccordingly, an analytical approach is proposed to identify blockchain technology adoption enablers and analyze their impact on supply chain performance. At first, the main enablers, derived from the literature review, are explored using network theory. The existing causal relationships between enablers are extracted based on a multi-expertise team members’ agreement. Then, the fuzzy inference system is employed to determine the weights of relationships between the identified enablers and supply chain performance-related targets.Results/findingsAfter modeling the extracted causal relationships using the fuzzy cognitive map model, a scenario is defined for each enabler, and its impact on improving supply chain performance is estimated by implementing the hybrid learning algorithm.Conclusion/discussionFinally, the obtained outputs are used to prioritize the blockchain technology adoption enablers using the fuzzy data envelopment analysis model. The result of this study implies that the blockchain technology can have a significant impact on mineral supply chain performance by creating smart contracts and enhancing environmental sustainability, traceability, and transparency.KeywordsBlockchain technology adoptionSustainable mineral supply chainNetwork theoryFuzzy cognitive mapFuzzy data envelopment analysisPart 2: Copyright laws not only foster creativity and innovation by rewarding the high cost, effort and time of artists/innovators, but have also deemed vital in economic growth. Industries protected by copyright laws (publishing, music, arts, scientific invention, among a bevy of others) do not only give a nation a differentiator and an advantage, but creates jobs and has a major impact on overall gross domestic product. In fact, the 2016 Update of Intellectual Property and the U.S Government released by the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) showed that copy right protected industries proved to make up over $950 billion of US GDP.While copyright laws are territorial and are unique / applicable only to the nation that the copyright law governs, there are international treaties that help extend protection across boundries. Some of those treaties include the Berne Convention (involving about 180 countries) that covers the treatment and duration of copyright on certain types of written and artistic creations among participating countries, and WIPO Copyright Treaty which specifically addresses computer programs/databases. Other than these treaties, there is really no such thing as “global copyright protection.” Digital technology and its extensive and rapid expansion has only made copyright more important. By providing an all-access means for seemingly limitless methods of innovative creation, protection of creative works, inventions, and continuing technological growth has created a bigger need to protect creators from sharing their wealth of knowledge and beauty and prevent discouragement by making it easily reproducible/stolen. As such, copy right laws and treaties needed to evolve with this rapid digital expansion to prevent mis-use of these creations (hence the aforementioned WIPO Treaty).Citations:Intellectual property and the U.S. economy: 2016 update. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://www.uspto.gov/sites/default/files/documents/IPandtheUSEconomySept2016.pdf Landes, W. M., & Posner, R. (n.d.). An economic analysis of copyright law. Economic Analysis of the Law, 83–99. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752135.ch9 RightsDirect. (2020, December 23). What is global copyright? international copyright basics. RightsDirect. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://www.rightsdirect.com/international-copyrig…Part 3: Copyright laws enable owners to be paid for the costs associated with use, which incentivizes creativity, and copyright can be seen as a trade-off between the incentive to create and the protection of the work. Moreover, a long term of protection does not incentivize creativity, and the longer copyright lasts, the higher the cost to the user. I believe that copyright law can be enforced across borders to a very low degree, because there are a large number of differences in the copyright laws of different countries that inevitably give rise to foreign-related copyright law conflicts. A more feasible approach is to strengthen international cooperation to develop a uniform scope of applicable conflicts.Copyright laws are constantly being revised and seemingly perfected, but after the emergence of digital technology, new issues have emerged one after another, such as whether webcasting of TV program signals is an infringement of the right of information network transmission or the right of TV program broadcasting. In addition, the development of digital technology has made the public’s ability to disseminate information stronger, adding difficulties for copyright owners to defend their rights, but with the technological development of search engine technology and data mining, it is easy to track down those who exploit works.Part 4: Intellectual property is more liable to theft; so are any other creative works since they may not have tangible existence usually. More often than not, it is difficult to know whether one’s intellectual property–story, poem, business idea, movie script, theory, and the like–has been completely or partially used by another person or an organization. Protecting this by copyright laws means that the use of the intellectual property by a person other than the owner requires permission from the owner and in most cases, royalty has to be paid for the use. So there is economics to intellectual property and creative works.After all, money is nothing but the value of time and labor put into an endeavor, therefore, whatever is created–be it an idea, an object, or a piece of art–has its monetary worth that must be rightly valued for use and reuse, but since it is prone to get copied and sold as one’s, copyright laws exist to protect original creator’s monetary and intellectual worth.Now the museums, libraries, and various heritage sites are expected to be accessible online. It requires the digitization of images and texts that belong to the original creators whose works are protected under copyright laws. Under this condition, for digitization, it is necessary to obtain the intellectual property rights to those texts and images. It means that the owners must be paid to obtain the rights.There are various laws and agreements that have established and enforced copyright laws across national boundaries. “As international trade in protected works became increasingly common, international agreements under the Berne Convention led to harmonization of copyright and authors’ rights and changes to the law necessitated by new copying or distribution technologies” (Towse pp. 80-81). The World Intellectual Property Organization has kept this process going.All these laws and agreements guarantee the copyright owners their cost for their works being used in any form.Work cited:Towse, Ruth. Advanced Introduction to Cultural Economics. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2014.
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