Was the work a means of escapism from the turmoil in that society?

The outline should be comprised from your compiled research.
· The Research Statement & Theoretical Approach should present original thoughts &
· The Descriiption of Study annotations should support & validate the Research Statement
& Theoretical Approach.
· The Conclusion found in the Descriiption of Study should suggest the progress and legacy
of subject.
· The outline should present the subject’s major artistic or educational contributions to
dance in America.
· The Socio/Economic information should present an overview of major events that shaped
our culture at the height of your subject’s success. This time period of events should be
linked to your subject. Did it help shape this artist? Was the work a direct reflection of
the time? Was the work a means of escapism from the turmoil in that society? Provide at
least 4 examples from that era then resonate these events with your subject.
· The introduction should instill the tone and setting of what is to be a complete research
· All written assignments should demonstrate well-developed, and well-thought writing
skills. The use of terminology and methodologies presented in lecture experiences
should also be present, if pertinent.
· Please refer to “The Chicago Manual of Style” for methods of citing footnotes and listing
the bibliography, or refer to easybib.
Argumentative Theoretical Outline Rubric:
Descriiption of Study
Basics of
35 points
35 points
15 point
50 points
3 sections (minimum)
9 bullet points
2 bullet points annotated
25 points
30 points
10 points
using a
verb, clear
summary of
subject with
statement of
how subject
has elevated
dance as an
art form
definition of
TA, summery
of TA,
thought &
tied to
validate the
importance of
subject from
the chosen
How does
you and
your major
course of
Why does
matter to
as a
Organized & well-
constructed list of
subject’s life & work as
it relates to dance in
western culture;
Annotation of 2 sections
that support
RS & TA;
4-5 sentences ea.
progress w/ 3 or more
bullet points
events in
of subject’s
of era to
setting of
tone for
direction of
paper &
regard for
elements of
should be
correct list
quoted or
works. Bib:
2 minimum
1 listing
should be
please see outline guide, example outline & list of subjects attached below…
-Include your Name/Course/Date on first page
-Top center of page include your subject’s name/theoretical approach (ex: Sylvie
Argumentative Research Statement:
·This should concisely summarize your subject’s impact on dance with specifics and
information. Your opening sentence should include a measurable verb. (Bloom’s
Taxonomy of Measurable/Action Verbs; use one in opening sentence):
The second sentence should help support opening argument made. Then begin the
general research of your subject.
Theoretical Approach Argument: (90% TA/10% your subject)
· A brief definition of your theoretical approach. Provide information germane to your
Assimilate the theoretical approach to your subject and the impact on your subject’s
body of work.
(only need to choose one primary argument)
Theoretical approaches acceptable for this class:
·Ethnography Rationale:
·Provide brief information on why & how this research has affected you and your major.
Descriiption of Study:
·Structural outline/bullet points detailing subjects primary contributions to dance.
·2 annotations that validate the argumentative research statement and theoretical
approach germane to
your subject.
·Conclusion that indicates progress in dance. Based on legacy of your subject’s work.
Socio-timeframe: (90% social events during set timeframe/10% your subject)
·Overview of a specific timeframe and events that shaped that era. The timeframe should
mirror your
subject’s most prolific body of work
·Provide 4 or more examples, consider art, literature, politics, finances & war as defining
·Resonate subject with events from this timeframe.
·Sets tone and direction of paper.
·Instill curiosity and interest of subject for reader.
-Elements of all previous sections should be present
·All work quoted, paraphrased should be listed correctly
·Print materials such as books, magazines and newspapers should be listed together under
·Videos, films, recordings, illustrations should be listed under “Videography”
·Web sources should be listed together under “Webography”
·Utilize The Chicago Manual of Style for correct format or easybib.
(Your submitted outline must be double-spaced)
Argumentative Research Statement:
The purpose of this project is to validate how the aesthetic of Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. shaped and defined
Broadway. Educated by his mother at a young age to appreciate fine textiles, jewelry and classical music.
Ziegfeld’s aestheticism would help to refine theater productions and the overall theatrical experience. The
project will focus on how his vision helped to elevate the standards of dance direction, theatrical lighting,
scenic design, costume design and publicity. Ziegfeld’s meticulous demands infused Broadway
productions with higher standards in dance technique and dance as a profession. The demands on
performers to work in Ziegfeld productions helped to shape audition standards and overall
professionalism in dance. This outline will demonstrate how the Ziegfeld Follies became a benchmark for
future Broadway productions and movie musicals. This research will also support how Ziegfeld’s vision
set a standard of beauty for women throughout the country.
Theoretical Approach Argument:
(only need 1)
The theoretical ideas that will be analyzed in the investigation of this project are cultural and feminist
based. Culture is referred to as the ideas, customs and social behaviors of a society1. The reader of this
project will be educated on Ziegfeld’s unconventional staging of Black and European performers. At the
height of the Ziegfeld Follies, society was subjected and accustomed to segregation and racial hierarchy.
These societal norms led to stereotypes that created tension and animosity in the early 1900’s. Black and
Immigrant Americans were the primary target of these prejudices. By allowing solo Black and Jewish
artists to perform Ziegfeld injected American audiences with an appreciation for diversity. Ziegfeld’s use
of diverse performers helped to instill a sense of tolerance and acceptance within various cultures.
Feminism is defined as the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of equality of the sexes2. One of the
primary arguments and formats of Second Wave Feminism is a woman’s right to choose. Through his
productions Ziegfeld served as a catalyst in empowering women in social, physical and personal aspects
of American culture. The Ziegfeld Girl embodied sensuality and sexuality while still being empowered
and confident. These productions helped to perpetuate women into the Second Wave of Feminism. The
Ziegfeld Girl has been synonymous with grace and beauty since 1907. This standard of beauty can be
seen as the catalyst of the stigmas associated with the female image. Through the objectification of
women Ziegfeld infused his productions with a sensuality and sexuality that would alter our views on
dance and our perception of the human body.
The research and understanding of Ziegfeld and the Ziegfeld Follies will deepen my understanding of
American Vernacular Dance. As an educator of an American art form: Modern Jazz Dance, the study and
understanding of how Ziegfeld infused sensuality and sexuality in his productions helps me to instruct
1 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture2 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/feminismhistorically the jazz dance idiom. The isolations, sensual hip movement and departure from classicism is
validated and made more evident through the study and research of Ziegfeld’s work.
Descriiption of Study:
(3 branches minimum) elaborate/annotate 2 or more sections validating R.S. & T. A.
I. Chicago experiences and productions
A. Early Influences
B. The Chicago World’s Fair
C. The Sandow Show: Eugene Sandow-The Modern Hercules
c1. Production format:
The marketing techniques employed for the Sandow show would set the tone for Ziegfeld’s future
productions and the
future productions of everything from stage to film. Prior to the opening of the show Ziegfeld staged
various interviews
with Sandow in different settings; in a garden, at church in a museum. These tactics made Sandow
more human and
more personable to his future audience. These staged interviews made audiences feel as if they were
friends with
Sandow, creating great allure for the upcoming produciton. Ziegfeld introduced the idea of teaser
campaigns. By
plastering photos of Eugen Sandow in scandalous outfits throughout greater Chicago, Ziegfeld created
anticipation and
curiosity. This publicity technique is used to today as a means to excite current audiences about new
films with their
favorite stars. (4-5 sentences)
D. Social Norms/ Progression from Victorian Ideals to American Perceptions.
d1.. Women oiling Sandow prior to show
d2. Contact of opposite sex in public setting
E. Socio/Economic overview of the time
e1.General Timeline 1894-1905
e2. Fashion/Art/Culture
e3. Vaudeville
II. New York experiences and productions
A. The Ziegfeld Follies Dance Directors
a1.Julian Mitchell
a2.Ned Wayburn
a3 Albertina Rasch:
Albertina Rasch was a classically trained ballerina from Vienna. She started her own dance company at
the on-set of first wave feminism. She toured her all female dance troupe throughout the Vaudeville
circuit when male comedians and black male tap dancers were the primary draw. Ms. Rasch understood
the value of classical training as well as audience demand. With the rise of Burlesque productions that
featured Mata Hari and The Black Crook Ballets, Albertina created works that honored her training but
gave audiences the sensuality and sexuality they desired. This type of forward thinking was what drew
Ziegfeld to Ms. Rasch and why he sought her out as the primary dance director for his biggest
productions. Albertina Rasch was the first major female dance director on Broadway, serving as a
catalyst for first wave feminism. (4-5 sentences)
B. First wave feminism-vs- Second wave feminism
C. Use of Black, Jewish & European performers
A. Effect on Broadway Productions and Production Marketing today
a1. Teaser Campaigns for major motion pictures
B. Dance on film, Iconic Staircase utilized in dance
C. Sensuality & Sexuality found in Jazz dance styles today.
c1. Jazz Funk-sensual & exaggerated sexuality
D. Audition Standards
Socio-time frame:
The Twentieth Century unveiled with excitement, hope and optimism. We were a country with a “Can
Do,” attitude. This attitude and positive thinking was prevalent in social, political and financial aspects of
America. The stock market was developing and would continue to prosper until 1929. The technology of
the time was utilized to progress our country forward. We built the first skyscraper, the transistor radio
was being utilized outside of war. Decades after the Reconstruction Era, the animosity of the Jim Crow
Laws was evident. The industrial revolution and World War I provided many Americans with jobs. Most
Americans worked 10-12 hours days, entertainment was regarded as an escape from these long days. It
was at the on-set of this new century that Ziegfeld began to mount some of his most successful
productions. The lavishness and grandeur of his Follies mirrored the growth of our country while
providing many Americans with an escape from the ordinary. His productions would also instill
audiences with tolerance and acceptance of diverse entertainers. (4-5 sentences)
From his first major production, Sandow the Modern Hercules, on August 1, 1893, until his death on July
22, 1932, Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. pushed the boundaries of entertainment. His vision has elevated the
standards of dance direction, theatrical lighting, scenic design, costume design and publicity. He instilled
a paradigm shift in how American audiences view the human body in entertainment. This abandonment of
Victorian thinking planted the seed for American Vernacular dance styles that would go on to infuse
dance with the sensuality and sexuality we see today. At the on-set of the 20th Century Ziegfeld began
mounting works that both reflected and challenged societal ideology. The lavishness and grandeur of his
Follies mirrored the growth of our country while providing many Americans with an escape from the ordinary. In his early productions Ziegfeld helped to create tolerance and acceptance of diverse cultures.
He would also serve as a catalyst in empowering women in social, physical and personal aspects of
American culture. Through his bold point of view Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. has helped to set the tone for
American Vernacular dancing. (6-8 sentences)
Mizejewski, Linda. Ziegfeld Girl: Image and Icon in Culture and Cinema. North Carolina: Duke
University Press, 1999.
Leonard, Robert Z., Director, The Great Ziegfeld, 1936.
Wikipedia. “Florenz Ziegfeld.” Last modified September 28, 2010.

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